BirdLife International (2012). Bent, A.C. (1954). There is a small pool on the northern side of the jetty that it may have been fishing in but it seems unlikely since the tide was low and there are not typically prey items in the temporary pools. Silver, M. and C.R. At hatching, the young are altricial – being born naked, blind, and helpless (Gill 2007). Wind speed started at less than ten miles per hour but grew over observation period until about 11 miles per hour from the SW. Wind tended to be gusty, blowing hard at times then backing off causing intermittent periods of slight chop on the water. Qualitative data was gathered on the behavior of Belted Kingfishers during the late fall including territoriality. In early afternoon made way back out to boardwalk to the first viewing platform at the beginning of the boardwalk. Aerial ramming to excavate the site have been observed and documented in other members of the Alcedinidae family (Hendricks et al. Fish prey species vary depending on location but can include trout, sculpins, sticklebacks, salmon, suckers, shiners, minnows, stonerollers, and others (Fry 1992). The Condor 65(5):426-431. General observations on foraging times were mainly in agreement with Kelly’s (1998a) paper on the behavior of Belted Kingfishers during winter. Olympia, WA. Harrison, H.H. Range and Habitat. USDA Technical Bulletin Series 115. Cornwell (1963) observed that the eggs were strategically placed in a tight circle around one central egg. Summary of Observations on November 22nd, 2014 Effects of environmental methylmercury on the health of wild birds, mammals, and fish. Territorial behavior in belted kingfishers, Ceryle alcyon, during fall migration. This home was built in and last sold on 4/18/1994 for $100,000. Cornwell (1963) suggests that young kingfishers may keep the nest more sanitary by excreting in the same areas and covering these areas with substrate dug from the walls of the nest chamber. 2006, Davis 1982). Adult molts occur after the breeding season and before migration between August and October (Bent 1954). Steinmetz, J., S.L. Flight: Taxes & Resort Fee 0.00. 2011). Ecotoxicology 18:319-324. The fastest moving water, and shallowest was at the upper portion of Tumwater Falls Historical Park where riffles were obvious. Ectoparasites are parasites that can survive outside of a host like fleas. Observations made by edge of greenbelt in Vandalia neighborhood Ilwaco, Washington. Young remain in the nest for 30-35 days (Fry 1992). Life histories of North American cuckoos, goatsuckers, hummingbirds, and their allies. Landscape and Urban Planning 69:69-85. Mating calls may have a slight “mewing” tone to them (Bent 1954). The young may stay to help to defend their parent’s territory throughout the autumn (Davis 1982). Typically low and swooping over water bodies but may rise above tree line for long distances (Bent 1954). U.S. National Museum Bulletin 176:111-130. The range of habitats that Belted Kingfishers will visit is astounding. 2013). Territoriality is even observed during migration stopovers where access to food resources may be limited (Hamas 2005). The adult female averages slightly larger than the adult male. Occasionally the kingfisher would disappear further west into the woods but would return from the same direction into similar perches. Great blue heron. Silver and Griffin (2009) found in their Connecticut based study that kingfishers are 1.4 times more likely to use a bank with every meter increase in bank height and 1.2 times more likely to use a bank with every degree of slope increase. 2013). The Washington breeder subspecies is the western form C. a. caurina, though some authorities discount this geographic variation. Davis’ (1982) study on territory size in Belted Kingfishers found an inverse relationship between territory size and food availability in non-breeding territories. Hovering was only observed once, one meter above the surface, but the bird did not dive. © 2020 Birds of Evergreen | The Evergreen State College. Figure 3: Sonogram of Belted Kingfisher call (Stephanie Lewis, November 10, 2012, near The Evergreen State College on Overhulse Rd. Ghasempouri (2009). Houghton Mifflin Company, NY. As reported in Fry (1992), the kingfishers were found to utilize oblique dives a majority of the time. The water appeared to be higher than when observations were made on November 17th, 2014. Captured fish are oriented into the mouth headfirst before consumption to avoid cuts from any spines (Bent 1954). For further information on nest site selection please see “Breeding:Nest Site” . Studies have conflicted on the average breeding territory size, with findings ranging from 0.4-1 nests per km in Silver and Griffin’s (2009) study to Cornwell’s (1963) findings of one nest per 2.1km. Sweet (2011) Helminths of belted kingfishers, Megaceryle alycon Linnaeus 1758, from a fish hatchery in Ohio, U.S.A. Migration: Juveniles undergo their first molt into adult plumage between February and April of their first year, before breeding season (Bent 1954). Biology, prevention, and effects of common grubs (digenetic trematodes) in freshwater fish. Belted Kingfishers have been found to utilize both undeveloped and developed shoreline but are hindered by tall, emergent vegetation (Traut and Hostetler 2003). Kingfishers are extremely territorial during both non-breeding and breeding seasons (Davis 1982). Kingfishers appear to be less susceptible to environmental contaminants than other fish-eating birds, possibly because their diet is restricted to smaller fish. (2001).The Sibley guide to birds. Waterbirds 37(2):144-152. 2011). The remainder of excavation is done with a combination of the syndactyl foot digging and removing substrate with the beak (Bent 1954, Hendricks et al. The other limits of “A” and “C’s” territory were not observed. Their food web positioning, longer life spans, and high metabolism allow for a bioaccumulation of many aquatic toxins (Zamani-Ahmadmahmoodi et al. Belted kingfishers dive into the water to avoid hawks eating them. This acoustic identification is important during the incubation period when mates in the nest cannot see approaching birds (Davis 1986). Size & Shape Belted Kingfishers are stocky, large-headed birds with a shaggy crest on the top and back of the head and a straight, thick, pointed bill. W.H. This is a result of a decrease in melanin due to mercury contamination and may impact mate selection possibly resulting in reduced fitness (White & Cristol 2014). Their most common call is a dry rattle, often given in flight. 2013). The male has blue-gray breast band; the female similar, but also has chestnut belly band. Coefield, P.W. The shoreline was relatively free of vegetation and the water in the cove clear of visible vegetation appearing to have a muddy bottom similar to that of Capitol Lake. Canadian Journal of Zoology 74:693-697. Check-in Information. Birds of WA 2020.pdf. Both the male and the female incubate the 6-7 eggs that she lays in the burrow. Gill, F.B. Eggs are typically laid one a day until the clutch is complete (Fry 1992). Nest cavities are composed of a narrow tunnel that’s typically one to two meters long terminating in a nest chamber (Fry 1992). Its back is an overall slate blue color. The Belted Kingfisher is one of my favorite birds to see, hear and photograph. Kingfishers have also been observed opportunistically fishing at fish hatcheries (Bent 1954). Kelly, J.F. Acoustic recognition in the belted kingfisher: cardiac response to playback vocalizations. Habitat Loss: From viewpoint observed a female Belted Kingfisher, identifiable by distinct secondary rufous chest band and rufous coloration on sides. A preliminary study on the predator impact of fish species by Belted Kingfishers has shown that they can impact prey fish populations and prey fish size classes in some streams (Steinmetz 2003). The bird did not swoop very low over water as had been observed presumably because of the large waves and wind chop. This kingfisher can weigh from 113 to 178 g (4.0 to 6.3 oz). Seston, R.M., J.P. Giesy, T.B. 1. Between five and eight eggs are laid; most commonly between six and seven (Harrison 1979). The distance between the two is approximately 30-40 meters. There was no ice on the water. The stoutness of the perch varied from smaller, thin branch ends to a thick piling stump. Belted Kingfishers even eat small vertebrates, … Continue reading → The leaving occurred at the same time the northern portion of the lake where it was perched became shadowed with increasing cloud coverage and increasing wind speeds and gust frequencies. Observations at each sight included watching and listening for Belted Kingfisher and making notes on general conditions for 15-30 minutes before moving to next site. Belted Kingfisher approach call Recorded November 17, 2014, Percival Cove, Olympia WA. The abdomen, undertail coverts, primary covert wing patch, and lower breast are usually white, though females have some rufous coloration (see below for more information on sex distinctions). Adult males and females have slate-blue upperparts and breast band, and a white collar and underparts. Observations on the breeding biology and behavior of a nesting population of belted kingfishers. She was perched approximately two meters above water surface and preened her chest with her beak occasionally. Because Belted Kingfishers have been observed at all these sites, their absence during observations is noteworthy. Breeding Territories: Availability of suitable banks for nesting is a limiting factor in distribution and abundance. Murray (2007). There was occasional rain in the morning that varied from light to heavy. Approve the Cookies This website uses cookies to improve your user experience. During observations it perched in only two places, one at 1.5 meters above water and another at 3.4 meters. Davis’ (1986) study on Belted Kingfisher acoustic recognition provides evidence that mated adults can identify each other on the basis of the temporal patterns of vocalizations. According to breeding bird surveys, the population in Washington has remained stable over the last 35 years. The two were not seen again during the rest of the observation period. Both the male and female rotate incubating the eggs for 23-24 days (Fry 1992, Harrison 1979). Davis’ (1982) study on territory size in Belted Kingfishers found that the main limitation on breeding territory size and selection are the available nest sites. The western side of the cove is bordered by tall rock cliffs with a few outcropping that are utilized by cormorants for nest and roosting sites. They hover above the water, and dive when they spot a fish, or sit in a low tree, where they can watch the water for fish. The female has a rusty band on the belly (this is one of the unusual cases where the female bird is more colorful than the male). Members of this group of small to medium-sized stocky birds typically have large heads and small feet. If you find the information on BirdWeb useful, please consider supporting Seattle Audubon. Predation is not cited as a serious threat to adults; young fledglings are at the greatest risk of predation (Cornwell 1963). Data collected from Christmas Bird counts and the Bird Banding Laboratory show that there is a negative correlation between latitude and the ratio of females to males with females more plentiful further south during the winter months (Kelly 1998). The prey would be consumed on the lower perch usually. Observed from 10:00 – 14:30. Belted Kingfishers are found alongside streams, estuaries, lakes, rivers, and ponds from sea level up to 2500m in elevation (Fry 1992). In parts of Washington where water remains open through the winter, kingfishers can be found year round; others in the state are migratory. Evers et al. Both male and female dig and participate in nest excavation and aerial ramming (Bent 1954, Hendricks et al. Nesting 0:00 / Belted kingfisher (flight call) flight call, male. Port Orchard, Washington, United States . Helminthes are a group of intestinal parasites that include the phyla classes Nematodes (roundworms), Trematoda (flukes), Cestodas (tapeworms), and Monogenea (flatworms). Prey is captured within the top 60cm of the water column and sometimes beaten upon a nearby perch to stun it (Fry 1992). The order includes familes as diverse as the rollers of the Old World and the motmots of the tropical Americas, but only one family reaches Washington: Kingfishers typically have crested heads and long, sturdy bills. Mercury levels in selected tissues of three kingfisher species; Ceryle rudis, Alcedo atthis, and Halcyon smyrnensi, from Shadegan marshes of Iran. Its back is an overall slate blue color. Kingfishers are common year round (as long as there is open water) in wetlands and along rivers and streams at elevations below the sub-alpine fir and mountain hemlock zones throughout Washington, and along the coasts.Click here to visit this species' account and breeding-season distribution map in Sound to Sage, Seattle Audubon's on-line breeding bird atlas of Island, King, Kitsap, and Kittitas Counties. Data on this subject remains preliminary and limited. A 6’3” low tide occurred at 9:57 and a 13’3” high tide at 15:17. Bridge, and M.J. Hamas (2009). Davis also hypothesized that Belted Kingfishers may use environmental cues such as riffle length in streams to determine the quality of habitat and the size of territory needed to sustain an occupant. “B” was observed banging a small fish three times on the perch before being swallowed. Juvenile plumage is markedly similar to adults with the white collar, shaggy crest, and dark breast band of adults (Sibley 2001). This was one of the first longer stretches of cold weather this fall. The oldest known fossil of the kingfisher genus was found in Florida, in Alachua County, and is 2 million years old. Ward, A.J.W., D.J. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 31(5): 1158-1168. Differences in the reproductive ecology of belted kingfishers (Ceryle alcyon) across streams with varying geomorphology and habitat quality. Nest sites can be used for multiple years and may be extended over the years but are sensitive to disturbances (Bent 1954, Cornwell 1963). Of the three birds observed, “A” was the most vocal and traveled the most, often disappearing out of sight onto southern side of the cove or into the wooded area surrounding the north side of the cove. This little kingfisher seems oddly proportioned, rather like a sparrow with the bill of a heron. 2002). Mate Selection: Mortality Rates: Young gain their first plumage between two and three weeks of age (Bent 1954). Though general cloud coverage differed between the days, the area of the cove that the kingfishers were observed was completely sunlit both days and free from wind. Belted kingfisher. Parental abandonment of nests was found to be the leading cause for reproductive failure in Belted Kingfishers (Bridge and Kelly 2013). Belted Kingfishers were observed in Thurston and Pacific County in Washington State during late November 2014. Mercury has been known to affect the immune, endocrine, and reproductive systems of wild birds (Scheuhammer et al. Sibley, D.A. Freeman and Company, NY. Wind was less than ten miles per hour from the south, stronger in the morning. Ambio 36(1):12-18. Bradley, S. A. Roark, J.L. Fledging & Post-Nesting: Davis (1982) has hypothesized that this behavior may be adaptive as it secures resources for the occupant and prevents other competitors from using those resources. Primary habitat requirements are clear waters and elevated perches to fish from (Bent 1954). Based on personal observations and eBird (2014) data, sightings of Belted Kingfishers had occurred up and down the Deschutes River drainage and attempts were made to sight Belted Kingfishers there during the morning hours. Oblique angles occurred 67% of the time, acute angles 20% of the time, and vertical angles 13% of the time. Last revision 4 July 2020 by Dennis Paulson. and D.A. Canadian Field Naturalist 119(2):293-294. Nest Site: Belted Kingfishers were only observed in the sunlit portion of the cove but were observed to fly through the shadowed portion occasionally. Though these observations (Table 1) were not able to directly quantify percentage of time perched, Belted Kingfishers were found to be perching the vast majority of the time with infrequent, short flight durations. Griffin (2009). Both parents regurgitate fish to feed the young. View more property details, sales history and Zestimate data on Zillow. The white belly is transected by a slate blue band, topped with a white collar. Table 1: Foraging behavior of Belted Kingfisher “B” on November 17th and and Belted Kingfisher “A” on November 23rd, 2014. Diet: Belted Kingfishers eat a lot of small fish, but they will also take crayfish, other crustaceans, frogs and tadpoles, aquatic insects, and even berries. Goodale, R.J. Taylor, R. Poppenga, and T. Daigle (2005). While research in the northeastern United States has shown that individuals prefer a higher ratio of sand to clay (75:25) to ease excavation, soil composition in other nest locations show that the Belted Kingfisher may be more flexible in site selection in different regions of North America (Brooks and Davis 1987, Shields and Kelly 1997). In the late morning around low tide, spent approximately an hour searching for Belted Kingfisher on the boardwalk but no sighting or hearing of one along the boardwalk. It may be seen perched on a high snag, or hovering on rapidly beating wings, then plunging headfirst into the water to grab a fish. Perch heights in the red alders varied from 6-6.5m above surface level. Davis (1987). Birds can lessen the body load of mercury by transferring it to feathers during the molt, since mercury has a high affinity for keratin (Evers et al. Ceryle alcyon. Distinguishing Features: It is fairly shallow and can become heavily vegetated during summer months. The main predators for Belted Kingfishers are the Cooper’s, sharp-shinned, and red-tailed hawks (Bent 1954).
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