Approximately 98% of lung cancers are carcinomas or tumors derived from transformed cells of epithelial lineage . Material Safety Data Sheet: Lemongrass Oil Organic Page 1 of 7 24 CHATHAM PLACE, BRIGHTON, BN1 3TN (UK) TEL. Eggs were considered dead if they failed to hatch after 5 days. Funding: This work has been founded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31902293) and the Guangxi Natural Science Foundation (2018JJB130197). A proapoptosis effect of the polysaccharide fraction of C. citratus has also been demonstrated . HLL exhibited the most potent effects on the A549 and H1975 cells, with IC50 values of 1.73 and 4.01 μg/mL, respectively. Notably, camphene, valerianol, and epi-α-muurolol were found only in culm oil but not in leaf oil. The crusts were placed in Petri dishes and transported to the laboratory within 1 hour. Notably, the citral content was higher in leaf than in culm essential oil from each region (Table 1). The samples were taxonomically identified by Dr. Nguyen, The Cuong, Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources (VAST), and voucher specimens were deposited in the Advanced Center for Bio-organic Chemistry. Moreover, in vivo studies are necessary to confirm the efficacy and safety of lemongrass oil which could accelerate its use in scabies management. Le migliori offerte per ORGANIC Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) olio essenziale 10ml la fatica sono su eBay Confronta prezzi e caratteristiche di prodotti nuovi e usati Molti articoli con consegna gratis! Mites showing persistent immobility, even after repeated agitation with a needle, were considered dead. Cymbopogon giganteus essential oil has shown a very distinct composition, which is mainly characterised by Funding acquisition, Parasitology Department, College of Animal Science and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning, China, Affiliation Yes No, Is the Subject Area "Scabies" applicable to this article? The Kim Duc culm (KDC) essential oil exerted the strongest cytotoxic effects against H1650 cells, with an IC50 value of 4.86 ± 0.29 μg/mL. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions. Lemongrass ( Cymbopogon citratus L. ), which is a species of grass, is adapted to warm climatic conditions. bioactivity of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus (lemon grass) against five species of the genus Aspergillus (A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. ochraceus, A. niger and A. fumigatus) isolated from maize, which is the staple food for most African and Latin American … We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008225.g001. However, none of these studies have tested the ovicidal activity of these oils. Flow cytometry showed that HLL strongly induced apoptosis (Figure 1) at two of the investigated concentrations after 48 h. Apoptosis was induced in 35.14% of A549 cells (32.12% in early apoptosis and 3.02% in late apoptosis) after 1 μg/mL HLL treatment. Lemongrass oil is a mixture (Table 1), no study has clearly showed which compounds are responsible for the allergic reactions. Scabies is a contagious skin disease caused by the infestation of Sarcoptes scabiei mites. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 14(4): EA 7380 Dynamyc, Faculté de Médecine de Créteil, UPEC, EnvA, USC Anses, Ecole nationale vétérinaire d’Alfort, Maisons-Alfort, France, Roles The DNA histogram shows the distribution and the percentage of cells in phases of the cell cycle. No, Is the Subject Area "Benzoates" applicable to this article? Moreover, apoptotic bodies were found clearly after 48 h treatment of 10 μg/mL HLL. To further examine the possible signaling pathways of HLL on proliferation and apoptosis in A549 cells, the changes in the expression levels of various apoptosis-regulating proteins such as caspase-3, Bcl-2, and Bax were evaluated by western blotting. Cellular and Molecular Biology Department, Infectious Diseases Program, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, Australia, Affiliation Mass spectrometry analysis confirmed that the main component presented in lemongrass oil was citral. While it can be grown in warmer temperate regions, such as the UK, it … All Petri dishes were placed in a humidity chamber (≥70% relative humidity) at 35°C. However, obtaining enough mites from patients with common scabies to perform in vitro tests is not feasible. FACS analysis using Annexin-V-FITC and propidium iodide staining was used to assess the effect of HLL on apoptosis in A549 cells. Commercially lemongrass essential oil comes from Cymbopogon citratus and Cymbopogon flexuosis, some of my suppliers have both, and some only have one. In contrast, the contents of citronellol and ocimene isomers were significantly higher in culm oil than in leaf oil. +44 1273 746505 EMAIL: firstname.lastname@example.org Web Site: www.nhrorganicoils.com Safety Data Sheet Organic Lemongrass Essential Oil (Cymbopogon citratus… Compounds such as geraniol and citronellol have been identified as potential skin sensitizers. According to the World Health Organization, more than 80% of the world’s population relies on folk medicine for their primary healthcare needs. Experimental models of rabbit and pig are suitable for the collection of large number of mites and they are well acceptable models for research purpose . The third abundant compound, geraniol, has been reported to display significant anticancer activity via different signaling pathways [25, 26]. Protein concentration in the supernatants was determined using the Bradford method. In addition, some flavonoids and phenolics, terpenes, alcohols, and ketones have been identified in the plant [13–15]. The chemical profile of lemongrass oil analysis in this study was comparable with that described previously from plants collected in Cameroon . Keep out of reach of children. were studied for their essential oils afte …. A study evaluated the ovicidal activity of lemongrass oil against Haemonchus contortus (a nematode parasite of ruminants) eggs, resulting in a EC50 value of 0.14 mg/mL . Formal analysis, No, Is the Subject Area "Mites" applicable to this article? The stained cells were observed using a fluorescence microscope (CKX53, Olympus, Tokyo, Japan) for determining any nuclear structural changes and apoptotic bodies. Essential oils were extracted from the culm and leaf of Cymbopogon citratus collected from different regions of Vietnam and analyzed using GC/MS. Further analyses indicated that the LC50 value of lemongrass oil at 1 h, 3 h, 6 h, 12 h and 24 h was 1.37%, 1.08%, 0.91%, 0.64% and 0.48%, respectively (Table 3). Duong Thu Trang, Thi Kim Van Hoang, Thi Thu Minh Nguyen, Pham Van Cuong, Nguyen Hai Dang, Hong Duyen Dang, Trung Nguyen Quang, Nguyen Tien Dat, "Essential Oils of Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf) Induces Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest in A549 Lung Cancer Cells", BioMed Research International, vol. As part of an ongoing search for biologically active natural products from Vietnamese plants, we found that the essential oils of C. citratus grown in Phu Tho province exerted potent cytotoxic activities against various cancer cell lines . basis). The cytotoxic effects of the essential oils were mediated by induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in the lung cancer cells. Writing – original draft, Affiliation At the concentration of 10% and 5%, lemongrass oil killed all the mites within 10 and 25 min, respectively. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases is the top Open Access tropical medicine journal, featuring an International Editorial Board and increased support for developing country authors. Then, fixed cells were incubated with 1 mg/mL propidium iodide (PI) (Invitrogen, USA) in PBS at room temperature for 30 min. The results indicated that lemongrass oil could be comparable if not better than tea tree oil when used as miticide. The leaves and culms of each sample (each 500 g) were hydrodistilled in a Clevenger-type apparatus for 4 h, after which the essential oils were separated and dried with anhydrous Na2SO4. As a topical therapy, 5% tea tree oil has been proposed for scabies treatment in Australia . All essential oils exhibited cytotoxicity in the tested cells. The result of antibacterial activity indicated that Cymbopogon citratus possessed a good and wide spectrum of antibacterial activity against all the tested bacteria; whereas Protein lysates were centrifuged at 22,000 ×g for 10 min at 4°C. here. In the current study, all Sarcoptes mites were live after 24 h immersed in paraffin oil and all eggs hatched when only treated with paraffin oil. The data used to support the findings of this study are included within the article. Data of above experiments were analyzed by SPSS 20.0 software and were expressed as the mean ± SD. In conjunction with education about its limitations and possible side effects, lemongrass oil, which extracted from a plant widely grown in tropical regions, should be considered a promising miticide against scabies, considering that it possesses significant activity against both Sarcoptes mites and eggs. A549 cells were seeded in a 6-well plate at a density of 2.5 × 105 cells/mL for 24 h and then treated with or without essential oils. The hatchability of eggs was determined under a stereomicroscope 5 days after the treatments . Although most EGFR-mutant NSCLCs initially respond to EGFR-TKIs, such as gefitinib (Iressa) and erlotinib (Tarceva), the vast majority of these tumors ultimately become resistant to drug treatment . × 0.25 μm film thickness) was used. As depicted in Figure 4, the exposure of A549 cells to HLL resulted in the downregulation of procaspase-3, indicating the cleavage of caspase-3, and in turn denoted the activation of caspase-3. There is no significant difference between the positive control and the lemongrass oil at concentrations of 10% (p = 0.719), 5% (p = 0.220) and 1% (p = 0.121). The cell cycle is closely associated with apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest leads to apoptosis via effects on various signaling molecules and regulatory proteins. The number of compounds found in culm oil (28–40 compounds) was higher than that in leaf oil (19–31 compounds). # Different concentrations of lemongrass oil compared to 25% benzyl benzoate (positive control) (p>0.05). The present study revealed that lemongrass oil exhibited a significant concentration dependent miticidal effect against all life-stages of S. scabiei. No, Is the Subject Area "Regression analysis" applicable to this article? Currently, EGFR-TKIs significantly extend the progression-free survival of patients with NSCLC. Component relative contents were calculated based on the total ion current without standardization. The chemical composition of lemongrass oil is presented in Table 1. Identification of components was achieved based on their retention indices and by comparison of their mass spectral fragmentation patterns with those stored on the MS library (NIST 08, Wiley 09). Scabies was added to the WHO list of neglected tropical diseases in 2017, which highlights the substantial global health and economic burden, especially in low income populations [2,3]. Sarcoptes scabiei mites and eggs were collected from the crusts of naturally infested New Zealand white rabbits in a rabbit farm in Nanning, Guangxi Province, China. A549 cells were plated in 6 cm plates and allowed to attach for 24 h and then treated with or without essential oils for 48 h. Only adherent cells were harvested and then washed twice with ice-cold PBS. Recently, nearly four dozen different histopathological variants of lung carcinoma have been recognized. The cells were cultured at 37 C in RMPI1640 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), 100 U/mL penicillin, and 100 μg/mL streptomycin in a 5% CO2 incubator. e0008225. Further studies should consider testing the efficacy of isolated main components against Sarcoptes mites and eggs to identify active compounds. Currently available treatments do not meet the ideal profile which includes miticides, ovicidal, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory/antipruritic properties. *Different concentrations of lemongrass oil compared to paraffin oil (negative control) (p<0.01). Yes In particular, camphene, valerianol, and epi-α-muurolol can be used to differentiate essential oils originating from leaves versus culms. This research was supported by the Department of Science and Technology, Phu Tho Province, Vietnam, and Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (grant number: TDNDTP.02/19-21). This oil was found also to be fungicidal at the same concentrations. Yes Essential oils were extracted from the culm and leaf of Cymbopogon citratus collected from different regions of Vietnam and analyzed using GC/MS. The hatching rate of Sarcoptes eggs exposed to lemongrass oil at the concentration of 10%, 5%, 1%, 0.5%, and 0.1% was 5%, 20%, 23.3%, 55%, and 60%, respectively. The cells were stained with Hoechst 33342 solution (2′-[4-ethoxyphenyl]-5-[4-methyl-1-piperazinyl]-2,5′-bi-1H-benzimidazole trihydrochloride trihydrate) at a concentration of 5 μg/mL at 37°C for 30 min in the dark. The LT50 value for lemongrass oil at the concentration of 10%, 5%, 1%, 0.5% and 0.1% was 4 min, 9 min, 4 h, 25.5 h and 42.5 h, respectively (Table 4), https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008225.t002, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008225.t003, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008225.t004. A comprehensive review showed that the threshold for citral (a major component accounting for 69.37% in the present study) to induce dermal sensitization in human is 1.4 mg/cm2 , which guaranteed the safe usage of lemongrass oil (1 mL of 5% lemongrass oil contain about 35 μg citral) for this purpose. R V Essential Puro Lemongrass Essenziale Olio 300ml (10oz)- Cymbopogon Citratus (100% Puro e Naturale Steam Distilled) Pure Lemongrass Essential Oil: Amazon.it: Bellezza All authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest. After 48 h, the culture medium was removed and the cells were washed twice with PBS. Duong Thu Trang and Hoang Thi Kim Van contributed equally to this work. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was recently shown to play a pivotal role in tumorigenesis. Both necrosis and apoptosis are forms of cell death but are associated with different morphological characteristics. GC-MS analysis showed that the main compounds were geranial (trans-citral, citral A) (37.40%), neral (cis-citral, citral B) (31.97%) and myrcene (15.65%). Probit regression analysis was used to calculate the median lethal concentration value (LC50) and median lethal time value (LT50). 100% Pure Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) leaf oil. The results showed that citral is the major component accounting for 61.20%–76.46% of the essential oils. Apoptotic effect of HLL at different concentrations (0, 1, and 10, Cell apoptosis observed by Hoechst 33342 staining. Control of scabies is predominantly performed by the use of synthetic miticides with topical agents (e.g. The membrane was blocked with 5% nonfat skim milk at room temperature for 1 h, followed by washing with PBS containing 0.1% Tween-20. Among the tested oils, HLL exhibited to be the most sensitive one to A549 cells compared to other samples. Cymbopogon citratus plants were collected from Tianlin County of Guangxi province, China. Lemongrass oil was used in five concentrations (10%, 5%, 1%, 0.5%, and 0.1%) to test the activity against Sarcoptes eggs. Writing – original draft. Lemongrass oil was also reported to show miticididal effect against a plant pathogen (Tetranycchus urticae)  and house dust mites . The HLL induced apoptosis and cycle arrest in A549 cells according to flow cytometric analysis and fluorescent nuclear staining assays. Lemongrass oil at concentrations of 10% and 5% killed all Sarcoptes mites within 10 and 25 min, respectively. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Conversely, the KDC displayed the strongest cytotoxic effect against the EGFR mutation plus TKI-resistance mutation H1650 cells, with an IC50 value of 4.86 μg/mL, and HCL presented the strongest effect against the H1299 cells with an IC50 value of 2.45 μg/mL (Table 2). The myrcene content was higher in leaf oil than in culm oil. Mites from different hosts may exhibit little differences regarding their morphology and host preference but they share the same biology . 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