Data have become an omnipresent concept in our daily lives with the routine collection, storage, processing and analysis of immense amount of data. The use of Big Data in healthcare, in fact, can contribute at different levels as reported by the Study on Big Data in Public Health, Telemedicine and Healthcare of the European Commission:9 (i) increasing earlier diagnosis and the effectiveness and quality of treatments by the discovery of early signals and disease intervention, reduced probability of adverse reactions, etc. This Article is brought to you for free and open access by Northwestern Pritzker School of Law Scholarly Commons. Academic journals in numerous disciplines, which will benefit from a relevant discussion of big data, have yet to cover the topic. Beyer M, Laney D. The Importance of ‘Big Data’: A Definition. The review indicates that the use of health data for purposes other than treatment enjoys support among people, as long as the data are expected to further the common good. Sezione di Igiene, Istituto di Sanità Pubblica, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuor, Department of Biology, University of Patras. 2 shows how executives differed in their understanding of big data… Big Data Big data is a wide term for information sets so substantial or complex that customary information preparing applications are insufficient. Since the relaunch of Microsoft Academic Services (MAS) 4 years ago, scholarly communications have undergone dramatic changes: more ideas are being exchanged online, more authors are sharing their data, and more software tools used to make discoveries and reproduce the results are being distributed openly. The Estonian eHealth project (mainly regarding sectors 1, 2 and 3) was more oriented toward the improvement of the quality and efficiency of health services, aiming to digitalize all the information and prescription of each patient. “Big data is having a transformative impact across virtually all academic disciplines—it is time for data science to be integrated into the foundational courses for all undergraduates.” Safeguarding data is his other major concern, because “the privacy implications are profound.” The benefit of this exercise is to create an active rather than passive experience. Beyond the hype: Big data concepts, methods, and analytics. Boccia S, Pastorino R, Giraldi L. Digitalisation and Big Data: implications for the health sector, Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies. To date, we can collect data from electronic healthcare records, social media, patient summaries, genomic and pharmaceutical data, clinical trials, telemedicine, mobile apps, sensors and information on well-being, behaviour and socio-economic indicators. In light of this, opportunities and potential are enormous for the benefit of patients and, in general, of the healthcare system. Given the rise of Big Data as a socio-technical phenomenon, we argue that it is necessary to critically interrogate its assumptions and biases. (sector 1); (ii) widening possibilities for prevention of diseases by identification of risk factors for disease (sector 2); (iii) improvement of pharmacovigilance and patient safety through the ability to make more informed medical decisions based on directly delivered information to the patients (sector 3); (iv) prediction of outcomes (sector 4). 2016-2019) to peer-reviewed documents (articles, reviews, conference papers, data papers and book … Additionally, new approaches must be found for translating the vast amount of data into meaningful information that healthcare professionals can use. Big data sources are very wide, including: 1) data sets from the internet and mobile internet (Li & Liu, 2013); 2) data from the Internet of Things; 3) data collected by various industries; 4) scientific experimental and observational data (Demchenko, Grosso & Laat, 2013), such as high-energy physics experimental data, biological data, and space observation data. EU is faced with several changes that may affect the sustainability of its healthcare system. The rapid evolution and adoption of big data by industry has leapfrogged the discourse to popular outlets, forcing the academic press to catch up. In the next paragraphs, examples of EU initiatives in the four macro sectors are listed. Next to the described projects there are many other initiatives which focus on the value of Big Data in oncology, the EU alone funds more than 90 projects working on this topic (projects with a funding over €499.999 are listed in table 2). The Journal's … 2016-2019) to peer-reviewed documents (articles, reviews, conference papers, data papers and book … Eggermont AMM, Apolone G, Baumann M, et al. Think about the information-gathering process you engaged to reach your decision. Another example for a success story given in the review is the INdividualized therapy FOr Relapsed Malignancies in children (INFORM) (mainly regarding sector 1, 2 and 3) registry which aims to address relapses of high-risk tumours in paediatric patients. Source: CORDIS,, retrieved on 05.07.2019. Achieving effective and proportionate governance of health-related data will be essential for the future healthcare systems, and it requires that stakeholders collaborate and adapt the design and performance of their systems to reach the maximum innovative potential of information and innovation technology on health in the EU. , – The authors have analysed a conspicuous corpus of industry and academia articles linked with Big Data to find commonalities among the topics they treated. Big Data 3:3, 173–188, DOI: 10.1089/big.2015.0012. Finally, Big Data can help identify and promptly intervene on high-risk and high-cost patients.10 Effective ways of managing these data can therefore facilitate precision medicine by enabling detection of heterogeneity in patient responses to treatments and tailoring of healthcare to the specific needs of individuals.11 All these aspects should eventually lead to a reduction in inefficiency and improvement in cost containment for the healthcare system. 2 2 The number of BD articles identified by backward snowballing was much greater because many relevant big‐data‐for‐development articles either do not specifically use the words “big data” in their title (eg, they use “mobile data” or “satellite images”) or do not specifically use the words “developing countries” in their text … Amir Gandomi is an assistant professor at the Ted Rogers School of Information Technology Management, Ryerson University. The INFORM registry started as a national effort in Germany and has been extended with the participation of eight European countries, as well as Australia. Data heterogeneity, data protection, analytical flows in analysing data and the lack of appropriate infrastructures for data storage emerged as critical technical and infrastructural issues that might endanger a Big-Data-driven healthcare. Cite this article as: Azmak O, Bayer H, Caplin A, Chun M, Glimcher P, Koonin S, Patrinos A (2015) Using big data to understand the human condition: The Kavli HUMAN Project. The sheer … One of the main drivers of collecting and analyzing big data for … EU supported initiatives concerning activities that involve the use of Big Data in public health in Europe from 2012 to 2018, in chronological order (EU contribution from: 499.999€). Such “knowledge explosion” ( Adair and Vohra, 2003 ) brings valuable opportunities for researchers to have a general understanding of the current state of development of a research problem. Describe the situation leading up to the decision. Ethical and legal challenges include the risk to compromise privacy, personal autonomy, as well as effects on public demand for transparency, trust and fairness while using Big Data.16. These articles revealed that the enormous volume of data is not consistent nor does it follow a specific template or format – it is captured in diverse forms and diverse sources e.g. The … For example, at the German Cancer Research Center, tools are developed to grant ways to access and analyse own data together with data from partners. These data have the potential to be analysed and used in real-time to prompt changes in behaviours that can reduce health risks, reduce harmful environmental exposures or optimize health outcomes. In this context, the recent call reported in Science from a number of eminent scientists worldwide, for the unrestricted use of public genomic data, finds a fertile ground from the public.18 Concerns evolve around the commercialization of data, data security and the use of data against the interests of the people providing the data. The publications are identified through a search of MEDLINE with the following terms for the literature search: (‘Big Data’) AND (‘Health’), Healthcare professionals can, therefore, benefit from an incredibly large amount of data. Moreover, Big Data and predictive analytics can contribute to precision public health by improving public health surveillance and assessment, therefore, in a public health perspective, the gathering of a very large amount of data, constitute an inestimable resource to be used in epidemiological research, analysis of the health needs of the population, evaluation of population-based intervention and informed policy making.9. Whilst there are pressing needs for more personalized and sustainable health services, science and technology are offering a host of potentially invaluable new tools to deliver them. Over the last decades, there has been growing enthusiasm of the potential usefulness of these massive quantities of data, called Big Data, in transforming personal care, clinical care and public health.1, Despite the term Big Data having become ubiquitous, there is no universal definition until now on the use of this term. Notes: Four projects (iManagerCancer, MedBionformatics, Mocha, Iasis) that involve the use of Big Data in oncology (table 2) result also from the query above. He is an avid blogger and blogs weekly about socio-economics in South Asia for the Dawn newspaper and for the Huffington Post. These diverse sources include a huge amount of data for one patient. However, great importance is placed on the need of using data and new information and communication technology (ICT) in public health to improve quality of prevention and care. In table 1, we list 11 projects funded from the EU between 2012 and 2018 with a contribution over €499.999 that are captured from the Cordis website (source: This paper also reinforces the need to devise new tools for predictive analytics for structured big data. Advances in Big Data analytics are given cancer researchers powerful new ways to extract value from diverse sources of data. Big Data is a sensitive issue for European Union (EU) institutions: the availability of health-related Big Data can have a positive impact on medical and healthcare functions. The DEXHELPP project (mainly regarding sectors 1 and 4) used routinely collected health data sources to analyse the performance of the health system, to forecast future changes and to simulate the application of policy and interventions. Published by Elsevier Ltd. International Journal of Information Management, Boccia S, Pastorino R, Mariani M, Ricciardi W. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. The complexity of Big Data analysis arises from combining different types of information, which are electronically captured. The approach of combining these sources of data is implemented in Comprehensive Cancer Centres (CCCs).13 One of 13 CCCs in Germany is the National Center of Tumor Diseases, where the Molecularly Aided Stratification for Tumor Eradication Research (MASTER) trial is conducted (mainly regarding sector 1, 2 and 3). Big Data is the dataset that is beyond the ability of current data processing technology (J. Chen et al., 2013; Riahi & Riahi, 2018). The last years have seen an explosion of new platforms, tools and methodologies in storing, and structuring such data, followed by a growth of publications on Big Data and Health (figure 1). Furthermore, in order to facilitate data collection, they provide an environment called X-Road to which all healthcare providers can link while using their own ICT solutions. The heterogeneity, noise, and the massive size of structured big data calls for developing computationally efficient algorithms that may avoid big data pitfalls, such as spurious correlation. This will put further pressure on Europe’s healthcare costs and economic productivity. Recent reports suggest that US healthcare system alone stored around a total of 150 exabytes of data in 2011 with the perspective to reach the yottabyte.7. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. About this journal. The recent EU Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) tries to balance patients’ privacy while ensuring patient’s data can be shared for healthcare and research purposes. Worse: it misleads, Health services research in France: bridging the gap between academia and policymaking, The legacy of an ideology: a decade on from benefits as lifestyle choice, About The European Journal of Public Health, About the European Public Health Association,,,, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, General practitioners’ cluster: a model to reorient primary health care to public health services, Public health services provided in the framework of general practitioners’ clusters, Modelling the risk–benefit impact of H1N1 influenza vaccines, Economics and public health: an arranged marriage. Big Data & Society (BD&S) is an Open Access peer-reviewed scholarly journal that publishes interdisciplinary work principally in the social sciences, humanities and computing and their intersections with the arts and natural sciences about the implications of Big Data for societies.. The performance of the National Early Warning Score and National Early Warning Score 2 in hospitalised patients infected by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Big data: The next frontier for innovation, competition, and productivity. His research interests include human development in Canada and South Asia, forecasting housing market dynamics, transport and infrastructure planning and development. While BDA may be implemented to stimulate a data‐driven culture, managerial decisions on various hierarchical levels will often still be based mainly on the experience and intuition of decision‐makers … Guidelines on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data in a world of Big Data Consultative Committee of the Convention for the Protection of Individuals with Regard to Automatic Processing of Personal Data (T-PD) Guidelines 1 on the Protection of Individuals with Regard to the Processing of Personal Data in a World of Big Data 2 Directorate General of Human Rights and Rule of Law. His research lies at the intersection of marketing, operations research and IT. Murtaza Haider is working on a book, Getting Started with Data Science: Making Sense of Data with Analytics (ISBN 9780133991024), which will be published by Pearson/IBM Press in Spring 2015. When it comes to big data, we don't only have to handle structured data but also semistructured and mostly unstructured data as well. Furthermore, there is an emergent discussion that ‘Big’ is no longer the defining parameter, but rather how ‘smart’ the data are, focusing on the insights that the volume of data can reasonably provide.5 This aspect is fundamental in the health sector. Gartner report. The Hospital Episode Statistics (mainly regarding sector 4) was in charge of the Secondary Uses Service that publishes reports and analyses to support the National Health Service in the delivery of healthcare services. According to McKinsey the term Big Data refers to datasets whose size is beyond the ability of typical database software tools to capture, store, manage, and analyse.2 Gartner proposed the popular definition of Big Data with the ‘3V’: Big Data is volume, high-velocity and high-variety information assets that demand cost-effective, innovative forms of information processing for enhanced insight and decision making.3 According to other definitions, instead, Big Data is also characterized by a fourth dimension: Veracity, concerning the quality, authenticity, ‘trustworthiness’ of data.4. The journal examines the challenges facing big data today and going forward including, but not limited to: data … Consider a recent substantive workplace decision you needed to make. Among them, the ‘Decision Support for Health Policy and Planning: Methods, Models and Technologies based on Existing Health Care Data’ (DEXHELPP), the eHealth project in Estonia, the ARNO observatory in Italy and the Hospital Episode Statistics in the United Kingdom. Further efforts must be made to make information for doctors and health professionals more accessible and understandable. This approach requires, however, that all the relevant stakeholders collaborate and adapt the design and performance of their systems. Within the MASTER trial data relevant to diagnostic information of young patients with advanced-stage cancer diseases is collected by performance of whole exome or whole genome sequencing and RNA sequencing, analysed and discussed. The statistical methods in practice were devised to infer from sample data. The use of Big Data in healthcare poses new ethical and legal challenges because of the personal nature of the information enclosed. 2. When it comes to education, Big Data is heralded as a significant game changer in academic performance. Starting with the collection of individual data elements and moving to the fusion of heterogeneous data coming from different sources, can reveal entirely new approaches to improve health by providing insights into the causes and outcomes of disease, better drug targets for precision medicine, and enhanced disease prediction and prevention. In a recent review article,14 this trial was illustrated as an example of a highly successful programme addressing the molecular profiling in cancer patients. He is specifically focused on big data analytics as it relates to marketing. Vayena E, Dzenowagis J, Brownstein JS, Sheikh A. Manyika J, Chui M, Brown B, et al. European Commission. CiteScore values are based on citation counts in a range of four years (e.g. Beside these projects characterized by a comprehensive approach, other initiatives focused on specific conditions (e.g. It is committed to collect data on psychiatric hospital admissions and re-admissions, with the aim of finding determinants of re-admissions and to harmonize the psychiatric care pathways across the EU.
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