Its seed oil is used in food and cosmetics. More than those other crops, cotton could be produced cheaply and efficiently, and Southern plantation owners grew wealthy selling it both domestically and, of increasing importance, internationally. The skip-row method ought to be followed if there is less availability of water. The irrigated cotton harvest is largely sown following preliminary irrigation and next, the light watering is given in three or four days following germination. This can be done by plowing & disc harrowing. The Research Leader is Gregory Holt. … Each processing stage in yarn manufacturing utilized the machine of specialized nature and provided quality effects in yarn production. Marketing of Cotton:- You can transport freshly harvested cotton to local markets or spinning mills. Land Preparation for Cotton Production:- The land preparation should be done in the dry season well in advance of the planting of cotton crop in order to allow for weathering. Gap Filling: If you find any seeds that are not germinating even after 1 week of sowing, gap filling should be carried out by planting healthy cotton plants. Processing of cotton Involves: Preparatory Processes Spinning Weaving Finishing Preparatory process Preparatory process involves ginning, Blending, Carding, Combing, Drawing Spinning Most spinning today is done using Break or Open-end spinning, this is a technique where the staples are blown by air into a rotating drum, where they attach themselves to the tail of formed yarn that is … The yield of Cotton:- Yield of the crop depends on many factors such as variety, irrigation, climate, pest control, soil type, and other crop management practices. Today, so many products are created from cotton. When compared to natural fibers, synthetic fibers can be produced in large scale, and they are cost-efficient. Weaving: The process of making a fabric by arranging two sets of yarn together. Mainly brief duration cereals like black gram, green gram and soybean are suitable. Surface and ground waters are often diverted to irrigate cotton fields, leading to freshwater loss … In areas where low rainfall is recorded, cotton is grown under irrigated conditions. Climate Requirement for Cotton Production:- Cotton can be grown both in tropical and sub-tropical warm humid climates. Your email address will not be published. Indian local varieties may yield 9 to 10 quintal/hectare. Note: Your local department of horticulture is a good source of finding information about pests and diseases in Cotton Cultivation. You have entered an incorrect email address! You can also fill the gaps during thinning. Intercultural Operations of Cotton Crop:- As we know weeds compete with fertilizers/nutrients/water and can reduce the yield. Spinning: The process of turning fiber into yarn is known as spinning. Cultivation process: • 1.sowing: Sowing of cotton is done from April to May before sowing seeds of cotton are soaked in water for about 9 to 15 hours. Ginning can be done using hands or by machines. 20% nitrogen and entire phosphorus and potash ought to be given in the time of sowing and 40% nitrogen in the time of square formation and final 40% nitrogen in the time of flowering. Since the plant isn’t constantly dealing with defending … In most cases, those machines also fall a predefined quantity of fertilizer granules between the seeds. • 2.germination: After the seeds planted it takes around 5-10 days to germinate. Cotton seeds are sown directly in the field with special sowing machines. Seed Treatment for Cotton Production:- Cottonseed treatment of fungicides should be given @ 3 grams/1 kg of cottonseed. Processes involved in its cultivation. It is the backbone of the textile industry, accounting for 70 percent of total fiber consumption in the textile sector, and 38 percent of the country’s export. The harvesting and sowing time of crops differ in different regions, depending upon the climate conditions. In India, cotton is mainly cultivated in the states of Maharashtra, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu and Madhya Pradesh. Cotton is harvested by picking the fully opened bolls. For hybrid varieties, fertilizer dose is 80:40:40 kg nitrogen, phosphorus, and potash per hectare. In the sowing line, we sow the seeds leaving an average distance of 3 inches between them. But, it has been estimated that the visits of bees to most cotton plants (self-fertile or not) increase final fiber production by at least 10% in weight, while the quantity of seed production also increases. There is a harvesting window that takes place in mid-fall that the growers hope to finish without any rains. The greatest diversity of wild cotton species is located in Mexico, followed by Australia and Africa. First picking of cotton should be done when 30-35% bolls open fully. Clothes made out of cotton are especially light and comfortable. Cotton production is responsible for the emission of 220 million tons of CO2 annually. The summer-sown harvest becomes regular irrigations at intervals of 8-12 days. Spinning process is an initial step to produce textile layout such as garments, fabric, home textile and so on. Thinning: In the case of irrigated cotton at the time of dibbling 3 to 4 cotton seeds should be sown dibbled. Cotton Cultivation; Planting, Harvesting Guide, Varieties / Types (Cultivars) of Cotton:-, Intercultural Operations of Cotton Crop:-. Hybrid varieties may yield 13 to 15 quintal/hectare. Organic Cotton Processing, Organic Cotton Production means not only the absence of inorganic synthetic fertilizers and pesticides but it involves very careful planning of … Cotton has been cultivated for over 5,000 years, and only halfway through the 20th century did modern farming methods move away from handpicking and horse plowing. Manures and Fertilizers of Cotton Crop:- The fertilizer required for irrigated cotton is 100:50:50kg nitrogen, phosphorus, and potash per hectare is suggested. India. The first stage of the process is planting the cotton seed. The earliest known historical traces of cotton were found at Mehrgarh near the city of Quetta, making Pakistan one of the first regions of cotton cultivation. Important for the production of organic cotton textiles is the “Global Organic Textile Standard” (GOTS) which was developed by the “International Working Group on a Global Organic Textile Standard”. So it is beneficial to take short duration intercrops. In the time of picking first pick clean cotton after which affected cotton. Weed control: Weeds can be controlled in three ways. The alternative: Organic cotton The fiber is almost pure cellulose. Processing stages in cotton yarn manufacturing . For seed treatment, a paste of fungicides / bio-fertilizer ought to be ready sufficient thick, which protect both the seeds and those seeds should be dried in shade After fully dried seeds should be used for sowing. • 3.seedling: After germination the initial leave will help the roots to … These soil may include the red-brown, yellow-brown, grey-brown and black types. American variety may yield: 11 to 12 quintals/hectare. Second picking ought to be done 2 to 3 weeks after first picking. The depth of soil should not be less than 20 to 25 cm. Contact the local department of agriculture for best high yielding and disease resistant variety. Cotton is popularly known as a cash crop. Cotton Harvesting . It is grown in black clayey soil with warm climate. The ideal rainfall of 60 to 100 cm is required for cotton cultivation of cotton. World Top 10 Countries of Cotton Producers:- The following countries are top 10 producers of cotton. As the kier is heated and pressurized, the alkali solution is continuously pumped through the cakes. When it comes to seed rate, 25 to 30 kg of seed will fulfill the requirement of 1-acre cultivation. Propagation for Cotton Crop:- Propagation of cotton crop is done by seeds. Mechanically by utilizing inter-row cultivators, molding discs and spring tynes. Afterwards, the seeds which have a size of about 0,5cm are inserted into the soil with a mechanical planter. Required fields are marked *. Cotton is one of Cotton crop thrives best in warm and moist climatic conditions where summer is long and where there is salinity in the soil. When it comes to the Indian scenario, cotton, the most important fiber crop of India plays a dominant role in its agrarian and industrial market. The spacing of cotton plants varies for the variety of seed, irrigated and rainfed crops. Cultivation And Processing Of Cotton Cotton cultivation requires a warm, humid climate and sandy soil . Growing, harvesting, and processing Cotton requires a long growing season (from 180 to 200 days), sunny and warm weather, plenty of water during the growth season, and dry weather for harvest. Irrigation requirement for Cotton Crop:- In the event of cotton germination, square initiation, flowering and boll formation and boll growth will be the critical phases for irrigation. Removing Leaves in Cotton Cultivation: In deep black cotton soil due to chemical fertilizer and irrigation, there is excessive vegetative growth. Some experts contend that cotton is the largest user of water among all agricultural commodities. The cotton bale is opened, and its fibres are raked mechanically to remove foreign matter (e.g., soil and seeds). Cotton grows near the equator in tropical and semitropical climates. The land which has not been cultivated for many years needs to be cleared of trees, bush, and significant vegetation. Organic Cotton Material Snapshot Material Scenario Cotton fiber that is grown, processed, and certified, according to organic standards. Cotton is a plant that is cultivated for a multitude of purposes and products. The process of removing these seeds from cotton pods is known as ginning. These machines open tiny trenches for the seeds, drop the seeds inside at certain distances between them and then cover lightly with soil. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Few cotton mills generally conduct the textile manufacturing process by generating fibers from cotton bales supplied and processing it ahead to attain fabrics. In areas where low rainfall is recorded, cotton is grown under irrigated conditions. 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Improved varieties- 20 to 25 quintals/hectare. Read: How to Build an NFT Hydroponic System. The ideal rainfall of 60 to 100 cm is required for cotton cultivation of cotton. During the production and growth of organic cotton, no pesticides or chemical fertilizers are used. Hence good weed control is important for successful cotton cultivation. Knitting: Two yarns are used in knitting whereas in weaving more than two yarn can be used. These soil may include the red-brown, yellow-brown, grey-brown and black types. 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Farmers instead use a rich compost and remove the pests be hand. It takes from 80 to 110 days for planting and flowering; another 55 to 80 days are required for the flower to produce the cotton ball. Soil Preparation in Cotton Plantation: In Cotton production, t he preparation of a good flatbed is very important. In the event of rainfed cotton fertilizer dose for Indian variety is 50:50:25 kg nitrogen, phosphorus, and potash per hectare. Soil Requirement for Cotton Production:-Cotton can be cultivated in a wide range of soils. Fiber is a synthetic substance that is used in the manufacturing of several other materials, for instance, carbon-fiber. Subsequent watering is contingent on the character of the soil and the weather conditions. It is basically used for every type of clothing from jackets to normal shirts. › The standard sets criteria for all stages of production and processing along the entire textile value chain. One can obtain excellent profits in commercial cotton cultivation under ideal crop management practices. Cotton should be stored in a clean and dry location. Currently it is grown over 6 per cent of the net sown area. Soil Requirement for Cotton Production:- Cotton can be cultivated in a wide range of soils. Email: email@example.com Phone: (806)746-5353 Fax: (806)746-5028 USDA, ARS, PA, CROPPING SYSTEMS RESEARCH LAB 1604 EAST FM 1294 (LUBBOCK, TX 79403) Lubbock, TX 79401 Theoretically, the typical self-pollinating cotton plant doesn’t require bees in order to pollinate and produce fiber or seeds. Ginning: The plant from which cotton is picked contains seeds. During initial processing at gins, the seeds are separated to produce successively fibers mostly longer than 20 mm, fibers less than 20 mm long, and short fibers less than 5 mm long. Each year, India produces an average of 5,770 thousand metric tonnes of cotton making it the … Don’t experiment on your own without knowing the symptoms and causes. Today, we detail cotton cultivation practices, farming methods, planting methods, and harvesting techniques. implications of growing Better Cotton. You can harrow the field in two directions, or Disc Plow. Secondly, spraying ought to be carried out 2 to 3 weeks after first spraying. Flowering and boll formation would be the critical phases from the point of view of irrigation. Processes involved in its cultivation. Introduction to Cotton:- Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, round the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae. In home, it finds its use in bedsheets and curtains. Cotton grows best in soil with a pH between 5.8 to 8.0. Your email address will not be published. Ginning the Cotton Modules Giant, specially designed trucks pick up the modules and take them to the cotton gin. Growth Regulators: To avoid shedding of square, blossom, and bolls of cotton spraying of naphthalic acetic acid at the rate of 1 ml in 4.5-liter soft water needs to be done in the time of square formation. Cotton Production Adopting more efficient cotton production practices is now a requirement instead of an advantage for all segments of the cotton industry. The roots of trees and bush need to be dug out, as these will cause severe problems for land cultivation equipment. Spinning: The process of turning fiber into yarn is known as spinning. It is advised to go for a soil test before cultivating the cotton. When its plant starts flowering, they give flowers of yellowish-white colour which turns red after few days. Cotton production is a water-intensive business. Irrigation causes the seed to germinate and break through the surface to reach daylight. Cotton cultivation and processing In the beginning the seeds are planted into the soil. A pair of jeans of 800 grams will cost 8000 litres. This Kharif crop requires 6-8 months to mature. Harvesting of Cotton Crop:- Usually cotton matures in 6 to 8 months after it is sown. China is the top producer of cotton in the world. Hybrid varieties may yield 28 to 30 quintals/hectare. It is advisable to plant cotton on flat lands in which the soil is heavy and free draining since cotton doesn’t withstand water-logging. The preferred sowing depth of the cottonseed is about 4 to 5 cm. The application of nitrogen is given by ring process. The plant is a shrub native to tropical and subtropical regions around the world, including the Americas, Africa, and India. However, loamy soil mixed with lime and potash is good for cotton cultivation and it grows well in Black Cotton Soil which is sticky in nature and has water retentive property. Cotton can be grown organically also organic cotton cultivation is picking up at an extremely fast rate. Todays cutting-edge machin… Higher temperatures will injure the crop and result in poor yields. The thinning operation should be carried out after 2 to 3 weeks of sowing by keeping only two healthy plants at each hill. Cotton – a seed hair fiber is commonly found in subtropical areas across the world. That is just two rows of cotton plus one row of intercrop. Sowing and Spacing of Cotton Plants:- The cottonseed is one of the most important parameters at a great yield. During the initial phase, the growth speed of cotton is slow. For this, the ground is plowed and divided into seed rows. Hence after 75 to 80 days eliminated a growing point of the main division is done and leaves of lower branches may be removed alternatively. It also assists other audiences interested in Better Cotton, such as retailers, ginners, spinners, traders, NGOs, trade unions, producer organisations and large independent cotton farmers, to better understand the Better Cotton Production Principles and Criteria. The global average water footprint of cotton fabric is 10,000 litres per kilogram. The process of removing these seeds from cotton pods is known as ginning. Increased yield due to decreased plant stress. Intercropping is accepted as 2:1 proportion. The optimal temperature for cotton growing is 24°C. Due to this, there is aeration and bolls not rotten and less incidence of insect and diseases of cotton. When the plant matures, the fiber is harvested without removing the seeds; the harvested product is called seed cotton. Cotton Incorporated is committed to providing cotton production information and cotton production resources to help the cotton industry meet and exceed these challenges. Intercropping: Farmers can get additional income cultivating intercrops during initial days of planting. 1/4th nitrogen and entire phosphorus and potash are given in the time of sowing while 1/2 nitrogen is given 4 months after sowing and remaining 1/4 nitrogen are given through spraying. Cotton is a crop with lots of uses including for the clothes we wear everyday. script async src="https://pagead2.googlesyndication.com/pagead/js/adsbygoogle.js">, Having interest in farming made me to go for helping farmers and other individuals to make profits from agriculture farming, livestock farming ,horticulture farming and gardening. Pollination of Cotton Plants:- Some cotton plants are self-fertile and self-pollinating, while some need pollinators. We leave an average distance of 3 ft between rows, in order to facilitate the mechanical harvest. For the first interval of irrigation water ought to be applied in first, third, fifth row and next interval water ought to be applied in a second, fourth and sixth row. Scientific Name/Botanical Name of Cotton:- Gossypium. Only certified seeds should be chosen, while seeds older than two years should be avoided. Cotton is a Kharif crop, used in making clothes and in the textile industry. The use of child labor and slavery is common in the industry. Next, during cotton processing, a solution containing sodium hydroxide is pumped into the kier for scouring of cotton. Production and processing of cotton uses a large amount of water. Higher temperatures will injure the crop and result in poor yields. Example: Sweater is knitted from wool. Unit processes for the production of cotton begin with the seed at field, cultivation, and ginning. Ginning can be done using hands or by machines. Most cotton in the United States, Europe and Australia is harvested mechanically, either by a cotton picker, a machine that removes the cotton from the boll without damaging the cotton plant, or by a cotton stripper, which strips the entire boll off the plant. Each cotton plant could only be pollinated on average for only one day, the day once the blossom is open. After picking it should be dried for 4 days in the sun with due care. That means that one cotton shirt of 250 grams costs about 2500 litres. Saline soils are not suitable for cotton cultivation. A traditional and still common processing method is ring spinning, by which the mass of cotton may be subjected to opening and cleaning, picking, carding, combing, drawing, roving, and spinning. This can be done by hand and also by machines. Ginning: The plant from which cotton is picked contains seeds. The seed is then fed by rain and once the cotton plant has grown cotton farmers will then pick the cotton by hand. The Cotton Production and Processing Research is located in Lubbock, TX and is part of the Plains Area. Its seeds are fed to cattle and crushed to make oil, rubber and plastics. However, it depends on the variety. Long cotton fibers are used to make thread, yarn, textiles, clothes and other products, like towels, carpets, sheets, and more. Processing of cotton There, machines feed the cotton into a cotton gin, which pulls the cotton fibers apart to remove unwanted debris such as dirt, twigs, burs, leaves and other plant material. Cotton was discovered in threads on a copper bead at a burial site dated to the Neolithic period (6000 BC). Table 24.14 shows the trends in the production of cotton in India. When it does rain, it settles any extraneous materials on the cotton and makes it harder to perfect the cotton during the ginning process. Production: India has the largest area under cotton cultivation in the world though she is the world’s third largest producer of cotton after China and the USA. The yield varies in both rainfed and irrigated crop. Since the fiber is pervasive in what we wear, eat, and use on a daily basis, its easy to forget that it comes from a crop, and must be harvested each and every year to meet worldwide demand. Soil should have proper drainage. The advancement in fiber processing and machine technology for yarn manufacturing is continuous. Varieties / Types (Cultivars) of Cotton:- The Popular cotton species cultivated across the world are: There are many hybrids and improved cotton varieties are available under above species. In the event of irrigated hybrid cotton due to this, there is less boll growth and also branches may break due to the weight of bolls. The seed rate may depend on cultivation methods and variety.